Digital Camera Buying Guide - Choosing
Digital Camera Choosing
Keep reading this page to learn how to Choose a Digital Camera. To learn about basic digital camera concepts, head back to Digital Camera Basics which is the first step in our 4-step Digital Camera Buying Guide.
Paying attention to megapixels is only important now if you intend to make truly large prints. Resolution determines the maximum print size which can be made from a single image without degrading image quality. All modern digital cameras have at least 12 megapixels which is more than enough for a 12" x 18" print.
It is critical to get enough megapixels for a desired print size. Otherwise, printed images will appear unsharp. Getting significantly more megapixels than needed may degrade image quality though due to increased image-noise. Unfortunately, consumers are rarely given the opportunity to choose fewer megapixels.
For uses other than prints, so few megapixels are needed that there is little point checking if a new camera has enough megapixels. It always does. Even the highest-resolution HDTV never requires more than 2 megapixels. The highest resolution computer monitor currentlyIBM used to have one with 9 MP (T221) but it has been discontinued. in production has 4 megapixels.
Since displays and printers produce pictures using tiny dots, giving them more pixels than they use is futile. In other words, the extra pixels are ignored! Look at the following table to see how many megapixels are needed.
|Standard Prints||Large Prints||Other Media|
Different subjects require different things from a digital camera. While all digital cameras manage well with daylight-lit outdoor pictures, other subjects and situations require certain features.
|Taking indoor pictures under typical household lighting demands high ISO sensitivity or at least use of a flash. Most photographers use flash because high ISO sensitivities make pictures look rather noisyEven with 35 mm films, high ISO means larger, more visible grain unless a relatively expensive large-sensor camera is purchased. High ISO sensitivities are preferable to preserve the mood of lightingUnless using a tripod for photographing still subjects. and the sense of depth.|
|A built-in flash must reach far enough to light a subject completely, otherwise an external flash will be required. In such case you must get a camera with a hot-shoeOr a sync-port for studio-flashes. to connect the external flash.|
|Night photography requires slow shutter speeds. Preferably longer than 4 seconds. Control over shutter speed is critical, otherwise it is quite difficult to obtain desired results.|
|Sharply photographing moving subjects requires fast speed shutters. For people doing sports you need at least 1/500. For faster subjects such as race cars, horses and speedboats look for a camera with 1/2000 or faster shutter speeds. To ensure a fast shutter speed is obtained a camera must have a shutter priority mode or a fast-shutter subject programSometimes called sport or action mode.. Indoor sports require a camera with high ISO sensitivity which is most likely a DSLR.|
|Wildlife photography requires the use of long zoom lenses because most animals don't easily let people get close to them. Even insect photography is better with a long zoom because of their small size. If you intend to photograph wildlife either get an Ultra-Zoom camera (10X or more) or an ILC with a long zoom lens (300mm or longer).|
|A continuous drive mode is frequently used to get good pictures of moving subjects. Cameras that have a continuous drive mode take pictures in rapid succession. The number of frames- per-second (FPS) is the number of pictures taken in one second. The burst length is the number of pictures that can be taken consecutively at the maximum frame-rateBefore the camera stops taking pictures or slows down dramatically..|
|Special situations like fireworks, moving light-trails and artistic photography absolutely require having manual controls. A camera with full manual-controls lets the photographer control aperture, shutter-speed and ISO independently.|
To take a picture of a subject, you must have your camera near it. To get it there, you must transport it. This is why it is extremely important to get a camera of the right size. Unfortunately not all features are available in every camera sizeManual controls are rarely found on small cameras, for example. and picture quality is better with a bigger sensor, which usually means a bigger camera and bigger lens.
Camera sizes fall into 6 categories:
- Ultra-Compact: Fit in most pockets and are easy to transport unnoticeably anywhere.
- Compact: Easy to transport, fit in purses and waist-pouches.
- Medium: Too big for the average purse, these can be kept in an small camera bag.
- Large: Definitely too big for a purse, fits in a nap sack or average camera bag.
- Mirrorless: Interchangeable lens cameras which can be Medium size when paired with a slim lens. They can get large with a long or bright lens.
- SLR: Large enough to need a dedicated camera bag, they are easy to notice and may feel heavy to carry over extended periods.
Other location considerations:
- Waterproof - Submersible under water up to a certain depth. Underwater photography requires a waterproof camera or an underwater camera case. A waterproof camera or case is rated to a certain maximum depth. Most waterproof cameras go deep enough for swimming and snorkeling but not sufficiently for SCUBA diving. For SCUBA diving, an underwater case is always needed.
- Weatherproof - Seals protect from dust, humidity and light splashing. A few cameras are splash-proof for taking pictures in the rain or in dusty environments. Some are also freezeproof which lets them operated below freezing, usually down to -10C, without a significant change in performance.
Some cameras are better than others even if they are the same size and have similar features. There are different aspect to camera quality and even more to image quality:
- Picture quality: Good cameras produce pictures with less noise or other problems such as distortion, chromatic aberrations, blurring, color shift, etc.
- Ergonomics: Well-designed digital cameras are comfortable, easy and efficient to use.
- Build quality: Some cameras are more sturdy than others and will last longer.
- Performance: The speed at which a camera focuses, takes pictures and updates its LCD all affect its usability. Faster subjects are more demanding of camera performance.
When looking at camera models in the next step look for these icons which indicate quality:
- Excellent +
New Cameras & Lenses
Pentax 645 HD D-FA 35mm F/3.5 AL IFPentax 645 Mount Prime Lens
Sony Alpha A6824 Megapixels Mirrorless (SLD)
Sony A Lens Mount
Fuji Fujinon XF35mm F/2R WRWeatherproof
Fuji X Mount Prime Lens
Leica SL Vario-Elmarit 24-90mm F/2.8-4 ASPHStabilized & Weatherproof
Leica L Mount Zoom
Leica SL Typ 60124 Megapixels Mirrorless (SLD)
Leica L Lens Mount
Zeiss Otus 28mm F/1.4 ZF.2Nikon F Mount Prime Lens
Nikkor AF-S 200-500mm F/5.6E ED VR Review
Nikon constant-aperture super-telephoto zoom with 200-500mm range and the latest Vibration-Reduction effective to 4.5 stops. Built-in super-sonic AF in a sturdy weatherproof body.
Nikon Coolpix P900 Review
In-depth review of the Nikon P900 ultra-zoom with an unprecedented 83X stabilized optical zoom lens paired with a 16 MP BSI-CMOS sensor capable for 7 FPS continuous drive and 1080p HD video at 60 FPS. Built-in 0.2" EVF with 920K pixels and Eye-Start sensor, rotating 3" LCD with 920K pixels, WiFi and a built-in GPS.
Lightroom Architectural Photography
Learn how to process architectural photography images using Adobe Lightroom.
Weatherproof Mirrorless Comparison
In-depth comparison of weather-sealed mirrorless digital cameras. Covers features, capabilities, image-quality and performance of the Fuji X-T1, X-T1 Graphite, Nikon 1 AW1, Olympus OM-D E-M1, E-M5 Mark II, Panasonic GH4 and GX8.
Panasonic Lumix DMC-GX8 Review
Panasonic flagship mirrorless, the first 20 MP Micro Four-Thirds digital camera. Built-in image-stabilization, 2.4 MP 0.44" EVF with 0.77X magnification. 8 FPS Drive and 4K Ultra-HD video. Fully weather-sealed and feature-rich.
Mirrorless EVF Sizes
Find the specifications of EVFs for almost any mirrorless camera here. A table compares the resolution, size, magnification and coverage among mirrorless EVFs.
Fuji X-T10 Review
Premium 16 megapixels Fuji mirrorless with a 16 MP APS-C X-Trans CMOS II sensor, EXR II processor and 2.4 MP 0.39" EVF with 0.62X magnification, 100% coverage and Eye-Start sensor. Hybrid digital and mechanical design with dual control-dials and direct exposure dials plus 7 custom buttons.
Fuji X-A2 Review
Mirrorless with standard 16 megapixels APS-C CMOS sensor. Dual control-dials at an entry-level price, plus 3" tilting LCD, built-in WiFi and 5.6 FPS drive.
Canon Powershot SX610 HS Review
Ultra-compact ultra-zoom with a stabilized 18X wide-angle optical zoom and 20 megapixels high-speed CMOS sensor. ISO 80-3200, 1/2000-15s, 2.5 FPS and full 1080p HD video, plus WiFi and NFC.
Panasonic Lumix DMC-FZ1000 Review
Ultra-zoom prosumer camera with a large 20 MP 1" CMOS sensor and stabilized 16X wide-angle optical-zoom lens. Records full 4K Ultra-HD at 30 FPS. High-speed 4K Photo-Mode and 12 FPS drive.