Digital Camera Buying Guide - More Basics
More Digital Camera Basics
|These are features of intermediate level to high end cameras that allow to control things like shutter speed, aperture, ISO equivalent and white-balance. All digital cameras have at least one automatic mode which lets the camera guess the best settings when taking a picture. Most medium or larger cameras have at least some manual controls.|
Aperture refers to how much light a camera can let in at a given shutter speed. A larger aperture, denoted by small numbers such as F2.8, lets more light in then a small aperture, denoted by larger numbers such as F8. Aperture also affects the distances that appear to be in focus when a picture is taken. This is called depth of field (DOF).
Cameras with larger maximum apertures work better in low light and have an advantage when it comes to image quality. They are also more expensive because they require larger lenses. On an ILC, the maximum aperture is defined by the particular lens, so it is not specified for the camera.
Shutter-speed is the duration for which a camera records light to take a single picture. Shutter-speeds allowed by a camera is described as a range measured in seconds and fractions of a second. For example, a range of 1/1000 to 4 lets it can take pictures from as fast as 1/1000th of a second down to 4 seconds.
|Action Photography: Shutter speeds of 1/1500 or more.||
Fast shutter speeds give a camera the ability to clearly capture objects in motion and take good pictures in very bright light. Cameras that can shoot faster than 1/1500s are marked with the Sports Photography icon.
|Night Photography: Reaches shutter-speeds longer than 4 seconds.||
Slow shutter speeds give a camera the ability to capture detailed pictures in low light. Camera which reach shutter-speeds below 4s are marked with ther Night Photography icon.
Films for traditional cameras come in different sensitivities to light which is simply refered to as ISOInternational Stantdards Organization, organism that defined how film sensitivities are measured.. The term ISO has been reused for digital camera and refers to an equivalent sensitivity. A higher ISO rating means more sensitivity to light but produces pictures with more noise which is similar to pattern of film grain.
Hover above the labels below to see what different ISO sensitivities can look like on a small-sensor camera. Keep in mind that equal ISO sensitivities are not equivalent between cameras. Particularly with large-sensor cameras which have an inherant advantage and tend to show less noise than cameras with smaller sensors.
- ISO 100
- ISO 400
- ISO 800
Modern digital cameras often reach at least ISO 3200 and some as high as 204,800. The problem is that not all sensitivities are usuable despite being available. In general, ISO performance is proportional to sensor-size. That being said, cameras generally do a good job a few stops below their maximum full-resolution sensitivity.
The focal length is a measurement determined by a camera's lens. When measured in 35 mm film equivalent, it serves to determine the angle of view of pictures taken. The smallest the equivalent focal length, the wider the angle of view and vice-versa.
Optical zoom is just the ratio between the longest and the shortest focal length. For example, a lens that is 35-105mm has a 3X optical zoom, so does a 50-150mm lens. The difference is that the 35-105mm equivalent lens sees wider, the 50-150mm sees further. Depending on the subject, focal length may actually be more important than optical zoom. Photographers of architecture typically prefer lenses with shorter focal lengths.
Focal Length Multiplier
When a lens is mounted on a DSLR, it shows a different angle of view than it would on a 35 mm film camera. The focal length multiplier, sometimes called crop factor, is the ratio between the focal length of the lens and the focal length of a lens which would give the same field of view on a 35 mm film camera. The focal length multiplier is used to determine the angle of view of a lens on a DSLRFor example, a focal length multiplier of 1.5 makes a 28 mm lens have the same field of view as a 42 mm lens on a 35 mm film camera..
|White balance is the ability of a digital camera to compensate for different lights. If we see a white object lit by yellow light, our eyes adapt so that we still see the object as white. Digital cameras can come preprogrammed to compensate for different types of lightTypical settings include sunlight, cloudy, incandescent and fluorescent light.. Advanced digital cameras have a feature called custom white balance which can be programmed for a specific type of light by taking a picture of a white object.|
Digital cameras normally focus automatically before a picture is taken. This is called Autofocus. All cameras can autofocus but they do need a compatible lens in the case of interchangeable lens cameras. Some specialty lenses cannot autofocus at all.
Some digital cameras also support Manual Focus mode to manually control the focus distance. MF is useful in situations when the camera cannot properly focus automaticallyTypically when the subject is too dark, low contrast or reflective.. It is also useful to take pictures fasterNo need to wait for the camera to focus before snapping the picture. when a subject is known to appear at a certain distance.
Instead of manual focus, some cameras have an Infinity Focus mode which sets the focus distance to infinity. Others have a Pan Focus mode which sets the focus so that everything beyond that point is acceptably sharpThis is called the hyperfocal distance..
All digital cameras can store their images in the JPEG format. The JPEG format is designed to keep file sizes manageable. When used at the highest resolution and highest quality settingAlso know as the lowest compression ratio., resulting images are of excellent quality.
For advanced needs, some cameras can store images in a file-format called TIFF. This is a much larger format which preserves very slightly more information.
Advanved digital cameras may also record RAW data intead of an image. This RAW data is then converted by a computer into an image using specialized software. This can help create images with a different look than what the camera can produce.
|RAW||Contains all the information captured by the camera.||Needs a special program to be viewed.|
|No loss of information due to compression.||Effort is required to effectively convert to an image.|
|Some image parameters can be changed after the picture is taken. For example, white-balance and sharpness.||Very large. Takes 2 to 4 times more space than JPEG images.|
|Slow. Most cameras shoot slower and are able to buffer fewer images. Some cameras freeze for up to 30s while producing a RAW file.|
|TIFF||Does not exhibit any compression artifacts or loss of quality due to the format.||Very large. Takes 3 to 6 times more space than JPEG images.|
|Has more color gradations than JPEG.||Slow. Most cameras shoot slower and are able to buffer fewer images. Some cameras freeze for up to 30s while producing a TIFF image.|
|Can be easily read by computers.|
New Cameras & Lenses
Canon PowerShot G1 X Mark III24 Megapixels Fixed Lens
3X Ultra-Wide Optical Zoom
Samyang AF 35mm F/1.4 FESony E Mount Prime Lens
Fuji Fujinon XF 80mm F/2.8R LM OIS MacroStabilization & Weatherproof
Fujifilm X Mount Prime Lens
Fuji Fujinon GF 45mm F/2.8R WRWeatherproof
Fujifilm GF Mount Prime Lens
Fuji X-E324 Megapixels Mirrorless
Fujifilm X Lens Mount
Olympus OM-D E-M10 Mark III16 Megapixels Mirrorless
Micro Four-Thirds Lens Mount
Panasonic Lumix GX850 Review
Highly compact mirrorless with 16 MP Four-Thirds CMOS sensor capable of 4K Ultra-HD video. Fast 10 FPS drive and 1/16000s-60s hybrid shutter. 4K Output for 30 FPS bursts, Post Focus and built-in Focus Stacking.
Olympus OM-D E-M1 Mark II Review
Olympus professional Micro Four-Thirds mirrorless with 20 MP sensor, built-in 5-axis Image-Stabilization, 121-Point Phase-Detect and Contrast Detect AF, 60 FPS Drive, 18 FPS with Continuous AF, Ultra-HD and Cinema 4K Video. Large built-in 2.4 MP 0.45" EVF with 100% Coverage, 0.74X magnification and Eye-Start Sensor in a freezeproof and weatherproof body with dual control-dials.
Fujifilm GFX-50S In-Depth Review
In-depth review of the Fujifilm GFX-50S Medium Format Mirrorless Digital Camera, a groundbreaking 50 megapixels camera with large 44x33mm sensor and unique modular EVF system. ISO 50-102400 range, 3 FPS drive and 1080p video.
Fujinon GFX Lens Roundup
Roundup of reviews for GFX Medium Format Mirrorless lenses: Fujinon GF 23mm F/4R LM WR, GF 32-64mm F/4R LM WR and GF 110mm F/2R LM WR.
Nikon D500 Review
Full-review of the ultimate Nikon flagship APS-C DSLR. The Nikon D500 offers a new 20 MP CMOS sensor with incredible ISO 50-1638400, 10 FPS, 4K Ultra-HD and a 153-Point Phase-Detect AF system sensitive to -4 EV. Built for professionals into a weatherproof body with dual control-dials and large 100% coverage viewfinder with built-in shutter.
DxO ViewPoint 3 Review
Review of DxO ViewPoint 3. Perspective, distortion and horizon correction software.
Nikon D5 XQD Review
Nikon flagship professional DSLR with 20 megapixels Full-Frame CMOS sensor. All-new 153-point Phase-Detect AF sensitive to -4 EV. ISO 50 to unprecedented 3,276,800! 12 FPS Drive for 200 JPEGs or 180 RAW. First Nikon DSLR with 4K Ultra HD video.
Olympus Professional Lens Roundup
Roundup of Olympus Professional and Premium lenses: M.Zuiko 7-14mm F/2.8 PRO, M.Zuiko 12-40mm F/2.8 PRO, M.Zuiko 40-150mm F/2.8 PRO, M.Zuiko 12mm F/2, M.Zuiko 60mm F/2.8 Macro.
Olympus OM-D E-M10 Mark II Review
Olympus second generation base OM-D with an anti-alias-filter-free 16 MP Four-Thirds CMOS sensor mounted on a 5-axis in-body stabilization system. Speedy 8.5 FPS drive, full HD @ 60 FPS and a wealth of features in a compact and lightweight body. Offers a 2.4 MP 0.45" EVF with 0.62X magnification and 100% coverage, plus dual control-dials and a highly customizable interface.
Fuji X-Pro2 Review
Fuji flagship XF-mount mirrorless with 24 MP APS-C X-Trans CMOS III sensor. 273-Point AF with 169 Phase-Detect points. 8 FPS Drive, 1080p video. Dual control-dials, direct dials and a hybrid viewfinder in a weather-sealed freezeproof body.
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